Nicholas Roerich (1874–1947) was the originator of a cultural artifact preservation movement whose insignia, a maroon on white emblem with three solid circles in a surrounding circle, has been used as a peace banner. The United States and Latin American states signed a contract in 1935, proposed by Roerich, vowing to safeguard “historical monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational, and cultural institutions” in both peace and war. “The Banner of Peace symbol has ancient origins,” according to the Roerich Museum. The earliest known example i
s three dots without the enclosing circle, which can be found on Stone Age amulets. Roerich came encountered countless later versions in other parts of the world and recognized that it indicated a profound and sophisticated knowledge of existence’s triune essence. Roerich defined the circle in the Banner and the Pact as reflecting the entirety of culture, with the three dots signifying Art, Science, and Religion, three of the most encompassing of human cultural pursuits. He further explained that the circle represents time’s perpetuity, covering the past, present, and future.